Common Causes of Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a common chest infection seen in infants, children and adults. It occurs due to infection and inflammation of air cavities of lungs. Common causes of pneumonia and their features are discussed in the following table.

 

 

            Feature

 

          Bacterial            Viral              Fungal
Affected Age Goup Any age Any Age but mostly children Elderly age group
Risk factors – people with cold and flu

-people recovering from any health ailment

-compromised immune status

-malnutrition

-asthma

-smoking

-all children

-approximity to infected indivisuals.

-pregnant females

-people with heart and lung diease

-immunocompromised people

-on prolonged steroids.

-chronic health problems-kidney disease or diabetes,asthma

Most common agent Streptpcoccus pneumoniae Influenza virus aspergillosis
Presenting features -cough with expectoration

-shortness of breath

-tightness of chest

-fever with chills

-nausea and vomiting

-confusional state

-fever moderate to high  grade

-nasal congestion

-watery eyes

-throat pain

-shortness of breath

 

-similar features but not responding to medications.

 

Complications 1.      Pleural effusion

2.      Lung abscess

3.      Severe respiratory distress

4.      Septicaemia with shock

5.

Prevention           Key points:

1.maintain hygine

2.keep distance from infectded indivisuals

3.consult the doctor at the earliest.

4.all children to be vaccinated

5. immunocompromised individuals should undergo pneumococcal and influenza vaccination.

Dr. Mukesh Joshi
 Chest Physician